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Олигархи ба орк

Хэвлэл, мэдээллийн болоод нийгмийн сүлжээний сэдэвт "олигархи”, эсвэл "орк” хэмээх хоёр баатар зонхилж, төр, засгийн бодлого, шийдвэр ч тэдгээрт чиглэгдэх болоод багагүй хугацаа өнгөрч байна. Олигархиуд нь төсвийн санхүүжилттэй тендер, концесс, хөрөнгө оруулалт, сангуудын зээлийг улстөрчдөөр дамжуулан олж авч, бизнесээ өргөтгөдөг хэсэг бол оркууд нь мөн л төсвийн санхүүжилттэй халамж, тэтгэмж, тэтгэврийг хамж авч, амьдралаа залгуулдаг тэр хэсэг. Нийгмийн дээд, доод давхарга болон төлөвшиж буй олигархиуд ба оркуудын дунд жийрэг маягаар оршиж, нэгэнд нь боломжоо, нөгөөд нь мөнгөө хураалгаж ирсэн ДУНДАЖ давхаргын төлөө хэн юу хийв ээ?!

Эдийн засаг уул уурхайн хоёр дахь тэсрэлтийн үед буюу 2008-2012 оны хооронд гурав дахин тэлэхдээ төсвийн орлогоос иргэн бүрийнхээ регистрийн дугаараар бэлэн мөнгө тарааж эхэлсэн давлагаа сонгуулийн хоёр ч мөчлөг дамжин үргэлжилж, ажилгүй ч амьдраад байдаг бүхэл бүтэн давхаргыг хөл дээр нь босгосон юм. Төрийн халамж, төсвийн тэтгэмжээр тэжээгдэн боссон "орк”-уудын загалмайлсан эх нь төрийн бодлого өөрөө. Нийгмийн хамгийн гол цөм болох татвар төлөгч, баялаг бүтээгч, зах зээлийн гол худалдан авагч болсон дундаж давхаргынхны хуримтлал тэрхүү бодлогын цоорхойд дараа, дараагийн сонгуулийн бүрэн эрхийн хугацаанд "Хүний хөгжил сан”-гийн өрөнд урсан одсон юм. 

Нөгөө талд нь төрийн эрх мэдэлд хүрсэн улстөрчдийг хувьчлан хувааж халаасалсан том компани, групп, толгой бизнесмэнүүд төсвийн санхүүжилттэй тендер, концесс, төсвийн хөрөнгө оруулалттай бүтээн байгуулалтын ажлыг авахын төлөө сонгуулийн дүн төдийгүй Засгийн газрын бүтэц, бүрэлдэхүүнд хэн хэн багтахыг удирдан шийдэж ирлээ. Нэг гараа олигархиудад атгуулсан төр засаг нөгөө гартаа оркуудыг хөтөлж, баруун зүүн халаасаа тэдэнд "ухуулж” ирсний төлөөсөнд өнөөдөр дундаж давхарга хоёр хуваагдан хэмлэгдэж байааг бид харж байна. 

Нийгмийн баялгийн цөмийг бүтээж, ашиг, орлогын ахиуг хүртэж, ажлын байр, татвар, төсвийн дийлэнхийг бүрдүүлж байдаг дундаж давхаргынханд оногдох учиртай аль л таатай боломжийг нь олигархиуд булаан авсаар ирсэнд тэд бухимдаж байв. Энэ ч утгаараа төрийн хуулийг, хууль хэрэгжүүлэгчдийг талдаа үйлчлүүлж ирсэн олигархиудтай тооцоо бодоод эхэлсэн У.Хүрэлсүхийн улс төрийн алхмыг нэг хэсэг нь зөвтгөн дэмжиж байгаа нь үнэн. Боломжоо булаалгаж ирсний бухимдал, гомдол нь өнөөгийн Засгийн газарт дэмжлэг болж очиж байгааг үгүйсгэхгүй. Гэвч дундажууд маань алив бүхний өнгөтэй өөдтэй, өрмийгхамдаг олигархиудад л зөвхөн "гомдолтой” гэвэл үгүй. Тэд нөгөө талдаа төсвөөс санхүүжүүлдэг нийтийн үйлчилгээний хамаг л халамж үйлчилгээг хусам шиг хурааж ирсэн "оркуудад” ч бухимдалтай. 

МУИС-ийн Эдийн засгийн сургуулийн Хүн ам зүйн тэнхимийн багийн судалгааны дүнд дурдсанаар бол "Дундаж давхаргын хүмүүс хамгийн олноор эрүүл мэндийн даатгал төлж, хамрагддаг боловч даатгалаар үйлчлүүлж чаддаггүй” гэжээ. Учир нь эрүүл м энд нь муудах, өвдөх тохиолдолд эмнэлэгт үзүүлэх, урт дараалалд зогсох, олон хоногоор чөлөө авах цаг зав муутай байдаг учраас хувийн эмнэлэгт мөнгийг нь төлөөд үзүүлэх азмыг сонгодог аж. Цаг хугацаа хэмнэх, нөгөө талаар баталгаатай үйлчилгээ авах үүднээс хувийн эмнэлгээр голдуу үйлчлүүлдэг гэсэн дүгнэлт дээр судалгааны дүн мөргөн буужээ. Тэд мөн үр хүүхдэдээ баталгаатай, чанартай боловсрол олгох үүднээс хувийн сургуулиудад голлон сургадаг нь ч судалгаатай, судалгаагүй ил болсон үнэн. Нэг үгээр бол тэд төсвийн орлогыг бүрдүүлэгчид мөртлөө төсвөөс санхүүждэг эмнэлэг, сургууль гээд нийтлэг үйлчилгээнд хамрагдаж чаддаггүй байна. Энэ утгаараа тэд төсвийн санхүүжилттэй үйлчилгээ, халамж дээр амьдрах атлаа нийгэмд төдийлөн нэмэр тус багатай "орк”-уудад ч бас бухимдалтай амьдарч байна.

Яг ийм зөрчил дунд буюу олигархиудаа дэмжиж, оркуудаа ад үзэх үү, эсвэл олигархиудаа ад үзэж, оркуудаа дэмжих үү гэсэн сонголт дээр хоёр хуваагдаж байгааг нийгмийн сүлжээн дээх хэлэлцүүлгүүдээс анзаарч болохоор байна.

Аль ч улс орон, нийгэмд нийгмийн тогтвортой байдлыг хадгалагч, татвар, орлогын дийлэнхийг бүрдүүлэгч, гол худалдан авагч, банкны мөнгө, зээлийг эргэлдүүлэгч, шинэ соёл хандлагыг нэвтрүүлэгч гээд хамгийн бүтээлч, бүтээгч хэсэг нь дундаж давхаргынхан байдаг. Мөн хүн амын хамгийн аз жаргалтай хэсэг нь ч тэд л байдаг. Харин Монголд хамгийн нимгэн бөгөөд эмзэг хэсэг нь өнөөдөр дундаж давхарга болж хувирчээ. Дээд хэсэгтээ өрмөө булаалгаж, доод хэсэгтээ хусмаа хураалгаж, энэ дунд хадны завсарх халиуны зулзага мэт амьдарч байх аж. 

Эдийн засгийн судалгаа, эрдэм шинжилгээний хүрээлэнгээс тооцоолсноор нэг монгол хүнд өдөрт ногдох орлогыг дэлхийн дундаж болох 200 ам.доллараар тооцвол манайд дундаж давхарга хүн амын ердөө 30 хувь болж байгаа. Энэ нимгэхэн давхарга эдийн засгийн өсөлт бууралт, аливаа хөдөлгөөнд хамгийн эмзэг нь. Ядуу хүмүүсийн хэрэглээ бага, нийгмийн халамжаас илүүтэй хамаардаг учраас үнийн хөөрөгдөл тэдэнд төдийлөн нөлөөлдөггүй бол баячуудад энэ бүхэн мөн л нөлөөлөл багатай. Харин өнөөх дундажууд ч хамгийн мэдрэмтгий байдаг зүй тогтолтой аж.

Тийм л учраас бизнесээ өргөжүүлэх боломжийг нь дундаж давхаргынхандаа нээж өгөх үүднээс олигархиудаас хамгаалах, нөгөө талдаа нийгмийн суурь үйлчилгээг хүртэх бололцоог бүрдүүлэх үүднээс оркуудаас онцлох шаардлага бодитой бий болжээ. Гэвч сүүлийн хэдэн Засгийн газрын бодлого олигархиуд ба оркуудыг дэмжсээр энэ дунд жийрэг болж буй дундаж давхаргыг бодлого, шийдвэрийнхээ гадна хаясан мэт. Нийгэм ердөө хоёр туйлд хуваагдаж болохгүй нь тодорхой. Хэзээ бид дундарсаар байгаа дундаж давхаргаа ярьдаг болох бол?!

З.Боргилмаа

Эх сурвалж: baabar.mn

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