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Хэрэглээний зээлийг хазаарлах бодлого

 

Хэрэглээний зээлийг хазаарлах бодлого

 


Хэрэглээний зээлийн өсөлт иргэдийн амьжиргааг бууруулах нөхцлийг бүрдүүлж байна. Уг нь иргэд ажил эрхэлж, цалин хөлс, олсон ашгаараа хэрэглээний зардлаа нэмэгдүүлэх нь зохистой зүйл. Гэтэл   өр зээлээр хэрэглээний зардлаа нэмэгдүүлж байгаа нь эрсдэл дагуулах шалтгаан болж байна.  Санхүүгийн нийт системийг харахад дээрх дүр зураг нь аж ахуйн нэгж, бизнесийн үйл ажиллагааг нэмэгдүүлэх санхүүгийн нөөцийг иргэдийн хэрэглээний зардлын тэлэлтэд ашиглаж байна хэмээн хэлж болно. Энэ нь бизнесийг дэмжих зээлийн санхүүгийн эх үүсвэр дутагдах нэг шалтгаан юм хэмээн төв банкнаас тайлбарладаг.

Манай улсын нийт өргөн хэрэглээний барааны ихэнх  хувийг импортын бараа эзэлдэг. Импорт нэмэгдсэнээр төгрөгтэй харьцах гадаад валютын ханш чангарсаар байгаа. Нөгөө талаар монголчууд бидний ихэнх нь хэрэглээндээ илүү ач холбогдол өгдөг  болсноос үүдэн 2017 оны гуравдугаар улирлаас хэрэглээний зээл жилийн 40-өөс дээш хувиар өссөн дүн мэдээ гарсан байгаа юм. Бид  үнэтэй гар утас, цахилгаан бараа, гэр ахуйн тавилга, жийп машин авч унахын тулд цалингынхаа ихэнх хувийг хэрэглээний зээлд тушааж байна. Гэвч бүтээх чадвараас илүү хэрэглэх сэтгэхүйтэй болно гэдэг бол сайны дохио биш гэдгийг эдийн засагчид хэлж байна.

 Иймээс  Монголбанкнаас иргэдэд олгох зээлийн хугацааг хамгийн ихдээ 30 сар байх буюу хэрэглээний зээлийг хазаарлах бодлого барьж барих шийдвэрийг гаргасан байна. Тодруулбал, Ирэх 2019 оны нэгдүгээр сарын 1-ээс эхэлж арилжааны банкуудын хэрэглээний зээл дээр 2 тѳрлийн хязгаарлалт тавигдах нь.
Нэгдүгээрт, зээлдэгчийн ѳр орлогын харьцааны дээд хязгаар нь 70 хувь болно. Ѳѳрѳѳр хэлбэл, сар бүрийн эргэн тѳлѳлт нь татварын дараах орлогын 70 хувиас хэтрэхгүй хэмжээний зээл, лизингийг хэрэглээний зориулалтаар авах боломжтой болно гэсэн үг. Үүнд цалин тэтгэврийн зээл, автомашин, эд тавилга, гар утас гэх мэт зүйлсийн банкны лизинг бүгд хамаарна.

 Хоёрдугаарт, хэрэглээний зориулалттай зээлийн боломжит хугацаа нь 30 сар болно. Ѳѳрѳѳр хэлбэл 2.5 жилээс урт хугацаатай хэрэглээний зээлийг банк олгохгүй гэсэн үг. Гэхдээ энд ипотекийн зээлийн хамаарахгүй. 

Монгол банкны Мөнгөний бодлогын газрын Эдийн засгийн шинжилгээ, бодлогын хэлтсийн захирал Б.Түмэнцэнгэл энэ талаар "Энэхүү арга хэмжээний үр дүнд иргэдийн хувьд хэрэглээний зориулалтаар авах зээлийн хэмжээ багасч, хугацаа богиносно. Банкуудын хувьд эргэн тѳлѳлт сайтай, хүү ѳндѳртэй бүтээгдэхүүн нь хязгаарлалтад орно. Харин худалдааны салбарынхны хувьд бараа бүтээгдэхүүнийх нь эрэлт багасах хүлээлттэй. Тэгвэл иргэдэд ч, аж ахуйн нэгжүүдэд ч, банкуудад ч ингэж "гашуун эм" уулгах нь ямар ач холбогдолтой вэ гэдэг асуулт гарч ирнэ. Энэхүү арга хэмжээний үр нѳлѳѳг "ойрын хугацаа" болон "алс ирээдүй" гэсэн 2 цаг хугацаанд ангилж тайлбарлаж болно.

Ойрын хэдэн жилийн үр нѳлѳѳг нь авч үзвэл хэрэглээний зээлд дээрх хязгаарлалтыг тогтоосноор ѳрхийн ѳрийн дарамт хэт нэмэгдэхээс сэргийлж, аж ахуйн нэгжүүдийн борлуулалт тогтвортой байх, банкны систем хямралд ѳртѳхгүй байх боломжийг дээшлүүлэх юм. Яаж вэ? Иргэдийн хувьд, орлогоодоо тохирсон хэрэглээтэй, даахгүй хэмжээний зээл авч ѳрийн тойрогт орохгүй байх нь чухал. Гэвч цалин орлогынх нь 80-90 хувь зээлийн эргэн тѳлбѳрт явдаг, эргээд зээл авч амьдардаг хүмүүс бий. Ийм хүмүүс цаашид ихсэх нь компаниудын борлуулалтад ч сѳрѳг нѳлѳѳтэй. Учир нь сарын орлогынхоо ихэнхийг зээлийн тѳлбѳрт ѳгдѳг хүн тогтвортой худалдан авагч, үйлчлүүлэгч байж чадахгүй. Түүнчлэн, банкны хувьд ч зээлийн эргэн тѳлѳлтѳѳ найдвартай хийдэг зээлдэгч байх аргагүй юм. Хэрэв эдийн засаг бага зэрэг донсолж, цалин нь зогсох эсвэл ажилгүй болоход зээлээр санхүүжиж байсан хэрэглээ нь огцом агших, банкны зээлээ эргэн тѳлж чадахгүй болох өндөр эрсдэлтэй. Тэгээд мэдээж олсон орлогоо зээлдээ өгөөд гар дээрээ мөнгөгүй үлдэх, зээлээс зээлийн хооронд амьдрах нь сэтгэлзүйн хувьд тухайн хүндээ ч том дарамттай.


Харин манайх шиг орлого багатай 3 сая хүнтэй эдийн засгийн бүтэц ийнхүү хэрэглээнд суурилсан байх нь дараах сѳрѳг үр дагавартай:

1. Kомпаниудад томрох боломжийг олгохгүй. Харин валютын ханшаас борлуулалт нь, санхүү нь бүрэн хамааралтай эмзэг байдалд хүргэнэ;
2. Орлого бага хэрнээ зээлээр хэрэглээгээ санхүүжүүлснээр өрийн дарамтанд орж нэг л өдөр дампуурах ч эрсдэлтэй;
3. Байгалийн баялгаа импорт болгож хэрэглээд, баялаг шавхагдах өдөр эдийн засаг тогтох аргагүй болох эрсдэлтэй.
Тэгвэл хэрэглээнд суурилсан энэхүү буруу эдийн засгийн бүтцийг засахын тулд нэгт, мэдээж санхүүгийн сахилга бат хэрэгтэй. Түүнчлэн, санхүүгийн эх үүсвэрүүдийг аль болох импорт, хэрэглээ бус харин хөрөнгө оруулалт, экспорт руу чиглүүлэх шаардлагатай. Үүнд хэрэглээ рүү хэт хэвийсэн байгаа банкны зээлийг бизнес рүү чиглүүлэх энэхүү арга хэмжээ ч хамаарах юм. Иймд хэдийгээр энэ нь санхүүгийн тогтвортой байдлыг хангах Тѳв банкны үндсэн зорилттой нийцтэй макро зохистой бодлогын арга хэмжээ боловч, эдийн засгийн бүтцийг оновчтой болгох замаар макро эдийн засаг илүү тогтвортой байхад ч дэмжлэг үзүүлж, хувь нэмэр оруулах арга хэмжээ болно” гэжээ.

Хүн бүр л мөнгө, санхүүтэй холбоотой шийдвэрийг өдөр тутам гаргаж, эдгээр шийдвэрүүдийн үр дүнд эдийн засаг маань бүрэлдэн тогтож байна. Иргэдийн санхүүгийн мэдлэг сайжирснаар илүү оновчтой шийдвэр гаргах боломж нь нэмэгдэж, эдийн засаг маань тогтвортой байхад нөлөөлдөг байна. Иймээс төв банкны зүгээс хэрэглээний зээлд хязгаарлалт тавих бодлогыг хэрэгжүүлж эхлэх нь. Харин олон нийт дэмжих үү эсэргүүцэх үү гэдэг том сорилт. Гэвч ирээдүйн орлогоо барьцаалж хэрэглэснээр өрийн хэмжээ хурдтай нэмэгдэж буй үйл явцыг бодлогоор хазаарлах нь ирээдүйд үр ашгаа өгнө гэх найдвар тээж байна.
 

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