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“Жидүү”-тэй УИХ-д Үндсэн хуулийн өөрчлөлтийг найдахаа больё

Өчигдөр УИХ-ын гишүүн,Төрийн байгуулалтын байнгын хорооны дарга Д.Лүндээжанцан мэдээлэл хийж, Үндсэн хуулийн нэмэлт өөрчлөлтийн төсөлд УИХ-ын ажлын хэсгээс оруулж буй зарчмын зөрүүтэй саналуудыг таницууллаа.

Зарчмын зөрүүтэй 16 саналыг Байнгын хороод, УИХ-ын нэгдсэн чуулганаар хэлэлцэхээр болсны дотор сонгуулийн тогтолцооны асуудал ч мөн орж иржээ. Тодруулбал, УИХ-ын гишүүнийг намын жагсаалтаар бус, "ард түмнээс шууд сонгох” зарчмыг Үндсэн хуульд оруулах саналыг ажлын хэсгүүд гаргасан байна.

Өмнө нь хоёр жил гаруй (2017 оноос хойш) ажилласан том ажлын хэсгийн өргөн мэдүүлсэн төсөлд "Сонгуулийг тогтолцоог УИХ хуулиар батлах”-аар тусгасан байсан нь УИХ-ын гишүүдийн хүчин чармайлтаар ийнхүү нуран унаж байх шиг. Товчоор хэлбэл, одоогийнх шигээ тойргоос сонгогддог мажоритари системээ авч үлдэхээр гишүүд шийджээ.

Ингэхдээ "ард түмнээс шууд сонгох” гэдэг Үндсэн хуулийн тэс өөр зарчмыг зэвсэг болгосон нь дахиад хууль зүйн алдаанд хүргэж байна. Уг нь бол энэ зарчмаар юуг илэрхийлдэг тухай өмнөх хоёр парламентын турш УИХ өөрөө Үндсэн хуулийн Цэцтэй маргасаар ирсэн билээ. Мөн энэ тал дээр Үндсэн хуулийн алдаатай, дутагдалтай зүйлийг ч шүүмжлэн хэлэлцэж, органик хуулиараа засч залруулахыг оролдсоор ирсэн байдаг.

Дэлхийн дэвшилтэт үндсэн хууль бүхий улс орнуудад сонгууль явуулах зарчмыг хоёр тусад нь бичдэг. Нэгдүгээрт, сонгууль бүх нийтийн, тэгш эрхийн байна гэж. "Бүх нийтийн” гэдэг нь сонгуульд бүх нийтээрээ оролцоно, ял эдэлж байгаа болон сэтгэцийн өвчтэйгээс бусад насанд хүрсэн бүх хүн сонгуульд оролцох эрхийг нь хангаж өгнө гэсэн үг. "Тэгш эрхийн” гэдэг нь сонгууль өгч байгаа хүн бүрийн санал ижил жин дарна, нэгнийх нь санал нөгөөгийнхөө өгсөн саналаас илүү жин дардаг байж болохгүй гэсэн үг. Тиймээс хүн нэг бүрийн саналын нийт сонгуулийн дүнд эзлэх хувь тэгш буюу ойролцоо байхын төлөө сонгуулийнхаа тогтолцоог хийдэг. Энэ бол сонгууль явуулах үндсэн зарчим.

Хоёрдугаарт иргэн саналаа илэрхийлэх аргыг "шууд, нууцаар” гэж тодорхойлдог. Иргэний саналыг хэн нэгэн өмнөөс нь төлөөлж өгөхгүй, хэн нэгний нөлөөнд автахгүйгээр бие дааж саналаа гаргах ёстой. Үүний тулд саналаа шууд, нууцаар гаргадаг. Түүнээс биш хэнийг сонгох, сонгохгүй тухай асуудал биш юм.

Гэтэл манай Үндсэн хуульд сонгуулийн буюу иргэний саналаа илэрхийлэх энэ хоёр зарчмыг салгаж бичээгүйгээс Үндсэн хуулийн Цэц гэдэг улс төрийн захиалгын байгууллага "иргэн саналаа шууд өгнө” гэсэн Үндсэн хуулийн заалтыг дуртайгаараа ашиглан гуйвуулсаар өдий хүрсэн билээ. Дээр нь сонгуулийн үндсэн зарчим болох "тэгш эрхийн” зарчим Үндсэн хуульд бүр ор тас хаягдсан.

Сануулахад УИХ-ын 2016 оны сонгууль холимог тогтолцоогоор явсан. УИХ-ын 76 гишүүний 28-ыг намын жагсаалтаар буюу хувь тэнцүүлсэн (пропорциональ) системээр, 48 гишүүнийг мажоритари системээр буюу тойргоос сонгож байлаа. Энэ үед ч гэсэн улс төрийн зарим намуудаас Сонгуулийн тухай хууль Үндсэн хууль зөрчсөн тухай иргэдээр өргөдөл өгүүлж, Цэцэд маргаан үүсгэж байсан ч Үндсэн хуулийн Цэц тухайн үед "Зөрчөөгүй байна аа” гэж шийдвэрлэсэн байдаг. Харин 2015 онд үүнийгээ дахин авч хэлэлцээд, намын жагсаалтаар сонгох нь иргэний "шууд сонгох эрхэд харшилж байна” гээд хуулийг хүчингүй болгочихсон. Үндсэн хуулийг хэрхэн тайлбарлах нь Цэцийн буюу түүний ард байгаа захиалагчийн дур зорго болчихоод байв.

Үүнийг засч залруулах нь одоо яригдаад байгаа Үндсэн хуулийн өөрчлөлтийн нэг том зорилт байлаа. Тиймээс "Сонгуулийн тогтолцоог УИХ хуулиар тогтооно” гэж УИХ-д эрхийг нь өгсөн хэрэг л дээ. Гэтэл энэ маань ч гэсэн явахгүй тийшээгээ болж байх шиг. Ямар ч юмыг дутуу дулимаг хийх нь ийм л хор уршигтай.

Дахиад сануулахад, сонгуулийн мажоритари тогтолцоо нь иргэдийн өгсөн санал гээгдэх аюултай байна аа. 51 хувийн санал авсан нам парламентад 76 суудал эзэлж, 49 хувийн төлөөлөл парламентад орж ирэхгүй байх боломжтой тогтолцоо юмаа гэж сүүлийн 19 жил (2000 оны сонгуулиас хойш) ярьсаар ирсэн. Иргэдийн санал гээгдэхгүй байх хамгийн боломжит хувилбар нь пропорциональ буюу хувь тэнцүүлсэн тогтолцоо юм аа гэж. Мажоритари системээр явуулсан сонгууль бүрийн дараа санал нь гээгдсэн нөгөө 49 хувь 51 хувиар сонгогдсон төлөөлөгчид, тэднийг сонгосон хэсгийг хараан зүхсээр дөрвөн жилийг бардаг билээ. Нөгөө иргэн бүрийн өгсөн санал ижил жин дарах тухай "тэгш эрхийн” зарчим ингэж үгүйсгэгддэг. Харин УИХ-ын гишүүдийн хувьд энэ бүхэн хамаагүй бололтой.

Ер нь бол 60 тэрбумын сүлжээгээр сонгогдож, ЖДҮ хулгайлсан парламентын олонхид Үндсэн хуульд өөрчлөлт оруулах "потенциальный”, ёс суртахууны эрх байхгүй нь үнэн. Гэвч өмнөх хоёр, гурван парламентын хийж чадаагүй Үндсэн хуулийн өөрчлөлтийг хийж чадах үнэмлэхүй олонхи тэнд бүрдсэн учраас нэг удаа найдаад үзье гэсэн горьдлого нийт олонд байв. Хэрвээ хийх ёстой, зөв зүйтэй өөрчлөлтийг хийж чадвал шүү дээ.

Гэвч "алим модноосоо хол унадаггүй ээ” гэдэг үгийг Ардын намын олонхи дахиад л баталлаа. Өөрөөр "чоно махнаас гардаггүй” ч гэдэг. Нэгэнт хулгай, хуйвалдааны замаар замнасан хүмүүс нэгмөсөн өөрчлөгдөөд нийтийн эрх ашгийг бодно гэдэг үлгэр юм байна. Тиймээс "Жидүү”-тэй УИХ-д Үндсэн хуулийн өөрчлөлтийг найдахаа л больё.   

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